Italy (i/ˈɪtəli/; Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja]), formally the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Southern Europe. Italy covers a range of 301,338 km2 (116,347 sq mi) and has a generally calm atmosphere; because of its shape, it is regularly alluded to in Italy as lo Stivale (the Boot). With 61 million occupants, it is the 5th most crowded nation in Europe. Italy is a profoundly created country and has the third biggest economy in the Eurozone and the eighth-biggest in the world.
Since old times, Etruscan, Magna Graecia and different societies have prospered in the region of present-day Italy, being inevitably consumed by Rome, that has for quite a long time remained the main political and religious focal point of Western civilisation, capital of the Roman Empire and Christianity. Amid the Dark Ages, the Italian Peninsula confronted cataclysmic attacks by brute tribes, however starting around the 11th century, various Italian urban communities rose to awesome thriving through transportation, trade and managing an account (to be sure, cutting edge free enterprise has its establishes in Medieval Italy). Especially amid the Renaissance, Italian society trhived, creating researchers, specialists, and polymaths, for example, Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. Italian pilgrims, for example, Polo, Columbus, Vespucci, and Verrazzano found new courses to the Far East and the New World, serving to introduce the European Age of Discovery. By and by, Italy would stay divided into numerous warring states for whatever is left of the Middle Ages, thusly falling prey to bigger European powers, for example, France, Spain, and later Austria. Italy would in this manner enter a long stretch of decay that kept going until the mid 19th century.
After different unsuccessful endeavors, the second and the third wars of Italian Independence brought about the unification of the majority of present-day Italy somewhere around 1859 and 1866. From the late 19th century to the mid 20th century, the new Kingdom of Italy quickly industrialized and obtained a pioneer realm turning into a Great Power. However, Southern and country Italy remained to a great extent prohibited from industrialisation, fuelling an extensive and powerful diaspora. Notwithstanding triumph in World War I, Italy entered a time of monetary emergency and social turmoil, which supported the foundation of a Fascist fascism in 1922. The resulting investment in World War II along the edge the Axis finished in military annihilation, financial demolition and common war. In the years that took after, Italy abrogated the government, reestablished vote based system, and appreciated a delayed monetary blast, accordingly turning into a standout amongst the most created countries  and the fifth biggest economy on the planet by 1990.
Italy assumes a conspicuous part in worldwide military, social and strategic affairs and in this manner is viewed as a noteworthy territorial power. Italy is an establishing and driving individual from the European Union (on 1 July 2014, Italy supplanted Greece as holder of the turning EU Council Presidency.) Italy is an individual from various global organizations, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the DAC, the WTO, the G4, G6, G7, G8, G10, G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Latin Union, the Council of Europe, the Central European Initiative, the ASEM and the Uniting for Conse